The necropolis of Carzaghetto (part of the municipality of Canneto sull'Oglio in the province of Mantua) cinsists of 56 tombs, found in a sand pit and excavated from 1970 to 1973. The burial rites show inhumation burials in the extended supine position without further grave structures. Orientation is never constant, but almost half of the tombs tend to have an approximate north-south orientation, while a few cases are exactly the opposite. Numerous graves are aligned on the other hand to west east and vice versa. In the cemetery of Carzaghetto, seven weapon-equipped graves with the sword always placed next to the right arm and frequently accompanied by a spearhead could be found. The swords are designated as an early La Tène type, with a rather short blade and an average length of just over 70 cm. This necropolis offers us the most authentic and original aspect of a north-alpine La Tène culture. The only apparent exception is the Certosa fibula of tomb 27, which belongs to a type that was widespread in the Alpine area (Ferraresi 1976).

Casalecchio di Reno

This archaeological site is located 4 km west of Bologna/Felsina, just north of the modern town Casalecchio at the river Reno. In 1877 and 1932, the first traces of burials of the 3rd century BC were found in the village of Ceretolo, including the remains of an iron weapon set and a bronze Etruscan jug. Between 1961 and 1970, finds of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC were recovered in the upper strata of an Etruscan settlement north in front of the cemetery. From 1989 to 2001, the Soprintendenza Archeologica of Bologna explored a large area (Zone "A") and discovered important remains of settlement structures and a whole cemetery. Half a kilometre south of the settlement, a grave complex was excavated - developed in two phases (first decades of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd century BC.). The cemetery area included 96 inhumation burials in pits arranged in linear order. In contrast to the rich grave goods of three weapon carriers, the other burials contain generally few grave goods, consisting mainly of metallic jewellery forms. In a second area, separated by a ditch, a single cremation burial was found, namely that of a leading warrior, because of a signet ring with golden inlay. The cemetery was also provided with structures related to the burial cult: In the first phase, beyond the creek, a rectangular platform made of gravel with four post holes of a small pavilion (burial house) had been built. The settlement documents the presence of a community of the Boii, who has settled near the ancient Etruscan capital Felsina since the very beginning of Celtic dominion in this region. Of particular importance is the cultural similarity in Celtic traditions beyond the Alps, both in cemetery structures, and in addition material, in suggesting that no process of interactions with local Etruscan culture may be evidenced (Kruta Poppi 1979, Ortalli 1995, Ortalli 1997, Ortalli 2012, Vitali 1992).


The two small necropolises from Marzabotto date from the beginning to the middle of the 3rd century BC, belonging to one or two small communities that settled on the plateau of the Etruscan city, which 7 had been abandoned for about a century. The La Tène finds come from various areas (points) of the old Etruscan city and consist of two small burial grounds with burials and a small number of decorative objects, without stratigraphic context. The first cemetery with 17 inhumation graves is located at the foot of the Acropolis and the other one with eight tombs in the centre of the urban area of Marzabotto. In two small tombs male graves with La Tène weapons and women graves with trinkets, which are limited to La Tène-type brooches and bracelets, could be detected. The strong La Tène characteristics of the two necropolises of Marzabotto are like the necropolis of Casalecchio di Reno "Zone A." These communities had burial rituals that differed from those of other centres (Bologna, Monte Bibele, Monterezio Vecchio in the Idice Valley). The difference is due to the absolutely lack of reception of hellenizing Greek Etruscan customs as symposium, banquet, sport/body care, as well as the almost exclusive use of the inhumation burial in contrast to the biritual burial, which was familiar in other necropolises. A series of inhumation burials with fibulae and a single bronze necklace were found in well shafts. Occasional metal objects of La Tène type originate from various parts of the urban area: some fragments of hollow anklets, partially deformed, and fibulae of the early and middle La Tène construction. Some of these were found in the immediate vicinity of an area recently identified as a temple area and could have been deposited as ex votos. As a sure indication of a votive offering, a fibula was deposited in the water sanctuary in the northern part of the Etruscan city. It is obvious, that any influence of the Greek-Etruscan world seems foreign in the complex organization of this Celtic settlement in the interior of the Apennine-valleys (Kruta 1980, Kruta Poppi 1975, Trocchi 1999, Vitali 2001, Vitali 2012).